mangrove deforestation in indonesia

The National Coordinating Agency for Surveys and Mapping (2009) stated that the vegetated area of mangrove forests in Indonesia is around 3,244,018.46 ha. … (2010). Global Environmental Change, 12(3), 203-217. The northern province of Sumatra is particularly affected by deforestation. (2014). The country has lost around 40% of its mangrove forests over a period of three decades. (2007). Ministry of Forestry Republic of Indonesia. More than double that area, much of it in coastal regions rich in mangroves, have been cleared for shrimp farms, but only about 40% of the farms are in production, according to 2018 government data. This make multinational companies find new lands in West Africa. “But we don’t want to clear more land either [for shrimp farms] by clearing mangroves and such,” Alan said. He said rebuilding shrimp farms on these idle lands could give a much-needed boost to the Indonesian fisheries sector. This is one third of global coastal carbon stocks (Pendleton et al., 2012). Intangible benefits of mangrove ecosystems include social and cultural functions. from http://mangroveactionproject.org/endangered-species/. In 2013, Indonesia’s revenue from shrimp export approached USD 1.5 billion; almost 40 percent of the total revenue from the Indonesian fishery sector (Ministry of Marine Affairs and Fishery, 2014). Primary forest cover loss in Indonesia over 2000-2012. B., Warren, M., Sasmito, S., Donato, D., . “Bumi Dipasena is the largest shrimp farm in Asia, maybe even in the world,” Susan said. A little-known big producer: Will forest policy reform in Peru support farm-forestry? Regional analysis revealed that agriculture expansion in mangrove forests occurred in all SEA countries. Over the past three decades, Indonesia has lost 40 percent of its mangroves (FAO, 2007). This accounts for 20 percent of land-use emissions in Indonesia (Murdiyarso et al., 2015) where emissions are estimated to be 700 million metric tonnes of CO2-eq (Ministry of Environment Republic of Indonesia, 2010). et al. Mangrove deforestation in Indonesia results in a loss of 190 million metric tonnes of CO2 annually. Illegal mining sparks malaria outbreak in Indigenous territories in Brazil, What is a white-faced capuchin? Endangered Specied Associated with Mangroves. Mangrove ecosystems in Indonesia store large amounts of carbon below the ground: 78 percent of carbon in mangrove systems in Indonesia is stored in the soil, 20 percent of carbon is stored in living trees, roots or biomass, and 2 percent is stored in dead or downed wood (Murdiyarso et al., 2015). The world’s mangroves 1980-2005. Ruitenbeek, H. (1994). “If the restoration program indeed takes place, then the shrimp fisheries in Dipasena would reach its optimum operation and could re-emerge as a top shrimp producer like it used be,” said Dedi Adhuri, a researcher at the Indonesian Institute of Sciences (LIPI). Introduction Mangroves are distributed in >120 countries throughout the world [1]. Keywords: mangroves; dynamics; deforestation; hotspot; South Asia; Southeast Asia; Asia-Pacific 1. Fishers use products from mangrove forests to make anchors for boats, joints for boat stabilizers, and dye for fishing nets (Armitage, 2002). Deforestation in Indonesia is mainly done for opening new lands for making palm fields and building infrastructures. Victor Hugo Luja Molina won the competition with an image titled Once Again Being a Mother, which shows a female jaguar in an intimate moment with her cub in a mangrove forest in Mexico. She called for improving road infrastructure and ensuring access to reliable electricity and clean water, both to boost logistics for the Bumi Dipasena shrimp producers and to help the thousands of families living in the area. Unfortunately, it also suffers from the world’s fastest rates of mangrove destruction. Earlier this month, Indonesia’s fisheries minister, Edhy Prabowo promised to work with other government institutions to revive Bumi Dipasena. During the high tide, mangrove forests are flooded. Importance of Mangroves to People: A Call to Action: United Nations Environment Programme World Conservation Monitoring Centre, Cambridge. Mangroves are adjacent to major landmasses and big rivers in Indonesia, and mostly found on the coasts of large islands of Sumatra, Kalimantan, Sulawesi and Papua. Shrimp farming is a major driver of the deforestation of mangroves, a crucial habitat for coastal marine life, in Indonesia. Mangrove forests support religious and spiritual values, as well as recreational and aesthetic values for ecotourism (UNEP, 2014). Although most deforested mangrove was replaced with agriculture or aquaculture, a considerable deforested area was classified as mangrove in 2012, particularly in Malaysia and Indonesia. Many mangroves in Indonesia are being converted into shrimp ponds. These products are harvested at both small and large scales, contributing to local livelihoods and national exports (Evans, 2013). When we think of Indonesia, we tend to think of a tropical paradise: coconuts on white sandy beaches, lush forests, clear blue ocean, perfect surf waves, and world class diving. In urban areas they are destroyed for land reclamation for residential areas. [JAKARTA] Conservation of Indonesia’s mangrove forests should be considered as a major strategy for global climate change mitigation, a new research says. Mangrove forests are the most carbon-dense forests in the tropics. (2014). Local communities harvest shrimp, eel, clam, crab, sea snail and a variety of fish species from mangrove ecosystems, providing both income and food for families (Armitage, 2002). from http://theconversation.com/indonesias-vast-mangroves-are-a-treasure-worth-saving-39367. “We’ll keep on fighting, and we urge the government to play its role,” said Nafian Faiz, one of the farmers. CIFOR (the Centre for International Forestry Research) made a prominent use of Belgium in this infographic. Retrieved 8 July, 2015, from http://statistik.kkp.go.id, Murdiyarso, D., Purbopuspito, J., Kauffman, J. CIFOR, Daniel Murdiyarso talks mangroves and why they matter, Cut emissions, not mangroves: Indonesia’s best hope for slowing climate change, Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR), The views expressed in Forests News are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the Center for International Forestry Research. If you value this objective and impact-driven journalism, please consider becoming a sustaining member. Shrimp farming has also drawn criticism for degrading the quality of freshwater available for communities living in the vicinity of the ponds. But the company was secretly slashing half of the bank loans meant for the farmers, leading to the decline of the entire operation. Indonesia is home to around 2.7 million hectares of mangrove forests. The forest disappears twice as fast as the Amazon forest: the equivalent of the surface of a soccer field is destroyed every ten seconds, which represents 0.84 million hectares of forest per year. Deforestation is a major national and international challenge. Scientists consider that to be the fastest rate of mangrove deforestation in the world. hotspot, with secondary hotspots including Malaysia, Cambodia and Indonesia. It has a prominent role in mitigating global climate change, and its Some of its top seafood exports include Asian tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) and whiteleg shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei). Previous Post Deforestation in Borneo Next Post Australian politicians aware of the size of Belgium. Our biweekly podcast delivering news & inspiration from nature’s frontline. In 1999, 350,000 ha (865,000 acres) of mangroves were cleared across the archipelago to make way for shrimp ponds — the highest rate of mangrove deforestation in the world, according to World Bank in 2003. Global Ecology and Biogeography, 20(1), 154-159. B., Murdiyarso, D., Kurnianto, S., Stidham, M., & Kanninen, M. (2011). This means Indonesia has the fastest rate of mangrove destruction in the world (Campbell & Brown, 2015). Nagelkerken, I., Blaber, S., Bouillon, S., Green, P., Haywood, M., Kirton, L., . The team found that around two per cent of Southeast Asia's mangroves, amounting to over 100,000 hectares, were deforested from 2000 to 2012. Stopping mangrove deforestation in Indonesia could help slow climate change July 30, 2015 12.19am EDT Prodita Sabarini , The Conversation , Daniel Murdiyarso , Tien Wahyuni The study also points to Indonesia's large-scale shrimp industry, worth US$1.5 billion a year, as being a driver in mangrove deforestation. Annual review of marine science, 6, 195-219. Above the water, the mangrove trees and canopy serve as a habitat for birds, insects, mammals and reptiles. The habitat function of mangroves for terrestrial and marine fauna: a review. Nature Climate Change. The Matang Reserve is largely managed as a sustainable monoculture of one mangrove tree … Ugly, smelly, overlooked ... and a wonderland for environmental protection and people's livelihoods. Carbon cycling and storage in mangrove forests. While Indonesia is a top global exporter of frozen seawater shrimps, the Southeast Asian country lags behind its neighbors in exports of freshwater shrimps and fresh, salted or smoked shrimps. Rice, oil palm, and rubber expansion accounted for most conversion; however, our analysis revealed targeted systematic transitions of mangroves to water (presumably aquaculture) and built-up areas indicated emerging threats for mangroves from those … La mise en place de cette production constitue un élément majeur dans le développement de lagro-industrie et va permettre à l'Indonésie de devenir le second producteur mondial dhuile de palme. Recalculation of Indonesia’s land cover in 2013 (in Indonesian): Direktorat Jenderal Planalogi Kehutanan. Zooming in, their study reveals that more methane was lost when mangrove … KUTA, Indonesia — Indonesia plans to restore more than 300,000 hectares (741,300 acres) of idle shrimp-farming ponds to boost its fisheries and reduce deforestation of the country’s mangrove ecosystems, according to a top official. (2012) Estimating global “Blue Carbon” emissions from conversion and degradation of vegetated coastal ecosystems. They are densely packed, with intertwined roots extending from the tree trunks. Indonesia’s mangroves store 3.14 billion tonnes of carbon — the highest in the world. Today, Indonesia is the most deforested country in the world. Mangroves provide support to a wide range of neighboring ecosystems, including coral reefs, seagrass beds, mud flats and sand flats (UNEP, 2014). A., Potapov, P. V., Turubanova, S., Stolle, F., & Hansen, M. C. (2014). The loss of mangrove forests in Indonesia contributes to 42 percent of the global greenhouse gas emissions from the destruction of coastal ecosystems, including marshes, mangroves and sea grass (Murdiyarso et al., 2015; Pendleton et al., 2012). These two areas are also home to many indigenous groups and have special autonomous governance status and exceptional biodiversity. Although half of global mangrove deforestation since 2000 has been in Indonesia, Bintuni Bay and Mimika District have some of the largest intact areas of mangroves in the world. Margono, B. The potential of Indonesian mangrove forests for global climate change mitigation. The Conversation. Your email address will not be published. . Natural disasters are just among a slew of negative effects as a result of mangrove degradation, activists warned, as failure to prevent mangrove degradation also … Mangroves: A global treasure under threat. Our headquarters are in Bogor, Indonesia, with offices in Nairobi, Kenya, Yaounde, Cameroon, and Lima, Peru. . Pendleton, L. Donato, D.C., Murray, B.C. from http://forestsnews.cifor.org/14229/could-sustainable-logging-save-indonesias-mangroves#.VZIkIlxTDhI. PLoS ONE 7 (9):e43542. Nature Climate Change. Mangrove rehabilitation practices can actively restore carbon stocks and reduce greenhouse gas emissions from previous land uses. In the last 2 years, Indonesian governments has forbidden deforestation for palm fields. “Mangroves” is the name given to the tangled mix of trees and shrubs found in coastal waters across the tropics and subtropics. The main causes of mangrove loss in Indonesia include conversion to shrimp ponds known as the “blue revolution” (Sumatra, Sulawesi and East Java), logging and conversion of land to agriculture or salt pans (Java and Sulawesi) and degradation due to oil spills and pollution (East Kalimantan) (FAO, 2007). and Mangrove Deforestation in Indonesia. Leave a Reply … Environmental functions of mangrove ecosystems include nutrient supply and regeneration, recycling of pollutants, water cycling and the maintenance of water quality (Ruitenbeek, 1994). 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Half of the world’s total mangrove deforestation since 2000 has been in Indonesia, where the main driver has been conversion for shrimp ponds. They are densely packed, with intertwined roots extending from the tree trunks. Shrimp farming is a major driver of the deforestation of mangroves, a crucial habitat for coastal marine life, in Indonesia. You may republish Mongabay content in your publication at no cost, Alleged gov’t-linked land grabs threaten Cambodia’s Cardamom Mountains, Fueled by impunity, invasions surge in Brazil’s Indigenous lands, Chinese demand and domestic instability are wiping out Senegal’s last forests, Solomon Islands environmental defender faces life sentence for arson charge, ‘Tamper with nature, and everyone suffers’: Q&A with ecologist Enric Sala, New paper highlights spread of organized crime from global fisheries, Study: Chinese ‘dark fleets’ illegally defying sanctions by fishing in North Korean waters, Game changer? The objective of this paper was to summarize the impacts of both threats on forest structure, species composition, aboveground biomass and carbon reservoir, species introgressions, and benthic fauna populations by collating past and current data and by using an interdisciplinary approach in the Urabá Gulf (Colombia) as a case stud… Background and Objectives: Mangrove forest ecosystems grow in brackish water especially in areas exposed to accumulation of organic matter and tides. (2008). During the high tide, mangrove forests are flooded. At its peak in the 1990s, Bumi Dipasena was producing 200 metric tons of shrimp a day on average, and generating an estimated $3 million a year in export revenue. Ecological Economics, 10, 233-247. CIFOR advances human well-being, equity and environmental integrity by conducting innovative research, developing partners’ capacity, and actively engaging in dialogue with all stakeholders to inform policies and practices that affect forests and people. One of the main challenges is the limited capacity of the existing shrimp ponds and infrastructure to boost yields, the minister said. Tweet. Mangrove Action Project. Mangrove deforestation accounts for 6 percent of total annual forest loss in Indonesia, despite covering less than 2 percent of the country’s total forest area. Sasekumar, A. This regrowth may occur after illegal logging of mangrove wood, or after tree removal in sustainably managed mangrove forestry schemes, such as the Matang Mangrove Forest Reserve in northwest Malaysia. Mangroves are the main habitat for the endangered Proboscis Monkey, found in Indonesia and endemic to Borneo (Mangrove Action Project, 2015). Indonesia second national communication under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Indonesia’s vast mangroves are a treasure worth saving. Mangroves among the most carbon-rich forests in the tropics. Could sustainable logging save Indonesia’s mangroves? “We must revitalize this area that’s abandoned or poorly managed … over the next five years,” Alan Koropitan, a senior expert in the office of the president’s chief of staff, told Mongabay on the sidelines of an event in Kuta, Bali, on Dec. 11. August 3, 2015 SizeOfBelgium Leave a comment. And Agroforestry ( FTA ), Kurnianto, S., Green, P. V.,,! Segara Anakan lagoon is a white-faced capuchin multinational companies find new lands in West Africa decline the. Provide food, shelter and protection from predation ( Nagelkerken et al., )... Message to the decline of the existing shrimp ponds and infrastructure to boost yields, minister... Research ) made a prominent role in national and global climate change mitigation strategies: mangrove forest conservation in Bay! Chips and firewood V., Turubanova, S., Stidham, M., Kirton, L. Donato, D.C. Murray. 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